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Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space.These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind.The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase.The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another.
The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere (i.e. It extends from the exobase, which is located at the top of the thermosphere at an altitude of about 700 km above sea level, to about 10,000 km (6,200 mi; 33,000,000 ft) where it merges into the solar wind.The exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth.The thermosphere is the second-highest layer of Earth's atmosphere.Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.
The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15 three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface.
The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.