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Most commonly, intracerebral hemorrhages are caused by rupture of vessels due to long-term atherosclerotic damage and arterial hypertension, resulting in bleeding into the brain (intracranial hemorrhage) or the space surrounding the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage).Such ruptures may occur due to: Before discussing the assessment, treatment, and care of acute strokes, it is important to review the anatomy and physiology underlying the disease.There are two major categories of stroke, which are diametrically opposite conditions.One is characterized by an insufficient supply of blood to a part of the brain (ischemic) and the other by an excessive amount of blood within the closed cranial cavity (hemorrhagic).Although it is due to ischemia (most often the result of blood clots), TIA is different from the major types of stroke because blood flow is blocked for only a short period of time.Neurologic dysfunction resulting from a TIA typically lasts less than an hour and results from focal cerebral, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia.The brain comprises 2% of the body’s mass, but it receives 17% of the heart’s output and consumes 20% of the body’s oxygen supply.
In addition, ethnic-specific risks and unhealthy lifestyle traditions and patterns are believed to be contributors . A stroke can have profound effects on the body as well as the mind and emotions.
The end result is varying degrees of neurological and/or cognitive malfunction lasting longer than 24 hours. Stroke is a medical emergency, and for persons experiencing a stroke, the difference between recovery and disability or death is measured in hours.
For healthcare professionals it is imperative that an understanding of stroke and the ways to take action become part of day-to-day practice.
Emotionally, a stroke can cause feelings of fear, anxiety, or depression and can result in damage to areas of the brain responsible for regulating emotions, leading to emotional lability and personality or character changes.
Finally, the loss of independence that results from all of these can be the most devastating consequence of having a stroke.The chance of having a stroke approximately doubles for each decade of life after 55 years.